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Who are you?
"The temperament is the meeting of the spiritual aspect of oneself, which one refers to as 'I', and the contributions of the father and mother. The temperament is the result of the blending of these two streams, the spirit and heredity."
 "If you put on a play, you should cast the characters according to the temperaments of your students. You might, for example, ask your cholerics to play Julius Caesar, and you might cast your sanguines as the messengers, since they would enjoy running in and out with the news. The melancholics love philosophical roles. ... The phlegmatics, on the other hand, like the parts where they can sit and think, removed from the central action of the play."
From "Waldorf Education - A Family Guide" - p. 60-66 The Role of Temperament in Understanding the Child by Rene Querido

See if you can match the temperament
to the character
Sanguine: Spring, Yellow, Superficial, Nerves, Air, Socially Aware, Caring.
Choleric: Summer, Red, Destructive, Dictator, Blood, Fire, Selfless Leader.
Melancholic: Fall, Mauve, Self-pitying, Bones, Earth, Considerate, Understanding.
Phlegmatic: Winter, Blue, Lazy, Glands, Water, Reliable, Faithful.

Experienced Waldorf teachers know that each child fits one of these four categories. Waldorf teachers are experts in determining this category which may determine where the child is seated in the classroom, or which musical instrument is recommended for the child, or which part in the play a child is given. It certainly reflects what the teacher expects from the child.

The Greek Olympics
See if you can match the temperament
to the child (as this teacher has done)
In the fifth grade, however, the temperaments are brought to full light in the pentathlon or Greek games. This event will usually involve children from neighboring schools to compete in seven events (hence the name "Pentathlon"). The children are not separated by school - but by temperaments. Each temperament represents a different city-state in Greece - Red=Sparta, etc. So, from a curriculum point of view, Waldorf schools see tremendous benefit in having all the "superficial" children compete against each other. All the "lazy" children compete together, as do all the "self-pitying" children and the "destructive dictators". They get their own colored uniforms or identifications - each associated with Steiner's colors - Choleric children get red, for example.  For melancholic children, we use green instead of mauve.  They're understanding about this.

The children get to march around all day wearing a uniform that identifies them to their classmates as "lazy". If the identification wasn't clear from the start, it is easy to see which children are lumped together with a glance. The obese children are all wearing blue. A child simply has to look at their uniform to see who they have been associated with.  Often, classmates or siblings will fulfill their karmic obligation to tease children based on the color of their uniform. This can be very distressing for some children - whose karma it is to be distressed by this.